FOOD, FACTS and FADS

Exploring the sense and nonsense of food and health


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Detoxification?

 

English: Simplifast lemon detox diet beverage

English: Simplifast lemon detox diet beverage (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

By Sally Feltner, PhD, RDN

 

Before you dust off that juicer, you should take a long hard look at the latest fad – detoxing your body from alleged accumulated toxins from environmental chemicals that supposedly lead to illness. When searching Amazon, detox, natural, and hygiene is frequently mentioned in the titles of the latest diet books, not to mention the myriad of products from tablets, massages, tinctures and tea bags that promise to cleanse your body of these impurities and your hard earned money. You can go on two-day to seven-day detox diets which promise cleansing and weight loss. You may lose weight, but that is more than likely due to starvation rather than the diet itself. These toxins are never identified by the manufacturers of these products. When asked to provide some scientific evidence that support their claims, no one seems to be able to provide evidence that “detoxification” is not a bogus treatment.   Despite this, the detox industry has become a huge business with a little help from some celebrities like Ann Hathaway and Gwyneth Paltrow. If toxins build up in the body with no way to excrete them, we would die or need serious medical intervention. However, we have kidneys, a liver, a colon, skin and lungs that physiologically are designed to rid our bodies of any unnecessary substances we don’t need.

Detox is actually not a new concept – its beginnings start centuries ago based on ignorance and misunderstanding of the physiology of the human body. Health reform began in earnest in the 19th century in America. During that time, there had to be a great deal of food anxiety; food often was adulterated with chemicals in order to make it palatable. As Upton Sinclair in 1909 writes of the meatpacking industry in his famous book, The Jungle: “And then there was “potted game” and ‘potted grouse’ and ‘potted ham’ made out of the waste ends of smoked beef… and also tripe, dyed with chemicals so that it would not show white… and potatoes, skins and all, and finally the hard, cartilaginous gullets of beef… All this was ground up and flavored with spices to make it taste like something.” Ronald Deutsch, The New Nuts Among the Berries: How Nutrition Nonsense Captured America, Bull Publishing, 1977.

Food preservation was crude and foodborne illnesses were rampant. People had little resources to turn to in dealing with even the common diseases of society. Whom did they have to rely on for medical advice on how to remain healthy in an age of so much misinformation and confusion? People were vulnerable to just about any ideas from anyone medical or nonmedical that would help them to maintain health and avoid disease.

In the 1848 edition of Buchan’s Domestic Medicine was listed the general causes of illness: “diseased parents, night air, sedentary habits, anger, wet feet and abrupt changes of temperature. The causes of fever included injury, bad air, violent emotion, irregular bowels and extremes of heat and cold.” Cholera, shortly to be epidemic in many British cities, was caused by rancid or putrid food, by ‘cold fruits’ such as cucumbers and melons, and by passionate fear or rage.” William Buchan, Domestic Medicine, 1848: A Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Diseases; Google eBook .

There are two major ideas that flourished and dominated  the 19th century that led to the premise that toxins must be removed from the body by detoxification – auto-intoxication and the natural hygiene theory..

AUTO-INTOXICATION

During the 19th century, people were told that constipation was at the root of most diseases and the term, autointoxication, became the mantra of the medical community. In 1852, a publication called The People’s Medical Lighthouse, a series of popular scientific essays on nature, uses and diseases of the lung, heart, liver, stomach, kidney, womb and blood had this to say about this common digestive problem: “daily evacuation of the bowels is of utmost importance to the maintenance of health”; without the daily movement, the entire system will become deranged and corrupted.” People’s Medicine Lighthouse, Lecture 71. Harmon Knox Root, A.M, M.D. 1852.

The term auto-intoxication was coined by Charles Bouchard, a French physician. Other physicians further defined the theory by describing the phenomenon as caused by the putrefaction or decay of proteins in the intestine generating offending toxins. This theory dominated a major part of the 19th century and has survived to this day

The obsession with the auto-intoxication theory led to the marketing and sales of a myriad of bowel cleansing products along with laxatives, enema and colonic irrigation equipment. These gimmicks are still available today. Although doctors prescribe colon cleansing as preparation for medical procedures such as colonoscopy, most do not recommend colon cleansing for detoxification. Their reasoning is simple: Your digestive system and bowel naturally eliminate waste material and bacteria; your body does not need colon cleansing to do so.

In fact, colon cleansing can sometimes be harmful. Colon cleansing can cause side effects, such as cramping, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. More serious concerns with colon cleansing are that it can increase your risk of dehydration, lead to bowel perforations, increase the risk of infection, and cause changes in electrolytes. Civilisation and the colon: constipation as the “disease of diseases. James Whorton BMJ 2000; 321: 1586-9

According to Quackwatch In 2009, “Dr. Edzard Ernst tabulated the therapeutic claims he found on the Web sites of six “professional organizations of colonic irrigations.” The themes he found included detoxification, normalization of intestinal function, treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, and weight loss. He also found claims elated to asthma, menstrual irregularities, circulatory disorders, skin problems, and improvements in energy levels. Searching Medline and Embase, he was unable to find a single controlled clinical trial that substantiated any of these claims.   Quackwatch, Gastrointestinal Quackery: Colonics, Laxatives, and More, Stephen Barrett, MD. August 4, 2010 www.quackwatch.com

My own investigations of the online “yellow pages” in searching for “Colon Cleansing” revealed that there were about twelve establishments advertising this service in my city of Asheville, North Carolina as of this writing.

NATURAL HYGIENE

Isaac Jennings, MD put forth the original ideas of natural hygiene in 1822 and became known as “The Father of Natural Hygiene.” He helped to developed a healing system called “Orthopathy” that claimed that Nature knows better than the most learned physicians of the time. Among earliest promoter of natural remedies was Samuel Thompson, a New Hampshire farmer who prepared “botanics”, as they were called, made from native herbs. In 1835, Dr. William Alcott, a graduate of Yale Medical school mixed part time farming with his medical practice. Other professors from Dartmouth and Amherst followed. A popular health cure came in the form of water cures. In 1849, the Water Cure Journal, Physiology, Hydropathy and the Laws of Life, edited by Dr. Russell Trall entered the health reform movement. By 1850, the Journal had 20,000 subscribers. Dr. Trall is quoted as saying: Typhoid and pneumonia are neither more nor less than a cleansing process – a struggle of the vital powers to relieve the system of its accumulated impurities”. http://www.whale.to/v/trall2.html.

A vulnerable public eagerly received their proclamations due to limited information and confusion on the causes of disease. Other proponents among many included Arnold Ehret, a German author of several books on diet, detoxification, fruitarianism, fasting, food combining, naturopathy, physical culture and vitalism. There was also Herbert M. Shelton who opened schools in Natural Hygiene and founded the American Society of Natural Hygienists Universal Healing, wwwuniversalhealingbelize.com/Brief- history- of –naturalhygiene.

In a previous post, the misguided principles of detoxification were supported and practiced by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg .  Detoxification still is alive and thriving in the form of a pseudo-medical concept..  The bottom line:  Detoxification is  primarily designed to “sell you something”.  If you want to “detox”, do not smoke, do exercise and eat a healthy balanced diet.

 


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Eating Healthy?

Back in the days of the low-fat craze, people began to think of foods they ate as to how many fat grams it contained.  Now we have a larger issue called Orthorexia,  the new eating disorder stemming from an overemphasis by some people to eat gluten-free, lactose-free, low sodium, low carbohydrate,  low something, etc. etc. I guess it will only be a matter of time before we have kale-eating contests or how many kale chips can you eat?

Americans tend to go to extremes with foods – either it’s too much or too little.  We can bed lipophobic or carbophobic or sometimes both.  Michael Pollan writes in his article, “Our National Eating Disorder”, that Americans are the most “anxious eaters”compared to other cultures.  He uses the example of when presented with the food “chocolate cake”, Americans will often say “guilt” while the French say “celebration”.  So now it appears that almost any food is viewed by some Americans as “suspect”.  That may be partly the fault of nutritionists (me included) that far too often refer to the American diet or Standard American Diet as the SAD diet. We do need to improve our diets considerably but we also  need an attitude change. Our Dietary Guidelines include a list of do’s and don’ts but never seem to mention food as a source of pleasure.

Another culture with an appreciation of foods is Japan.  According to Naomi Moriyama, co-athor of Japanese Women Don’t Get Old or Fat: Secrets of my Mother’s Tokyo Kitchen, “The magic of Japan-style eating is a healthier balance of filling, delicious lower-calorie foods, presented with beautiful portion control in pretty little dishes and plates,”  This way of dining encourages you to “eat with your eyes” by enjoying the beauty of your food.  What a contrast to the American way of eating on the run or in the car and relying on a bag of chips and a soda for lunch and then going to the extremes of orthorexia to alleviate the guilt for our bad eating habits.

CLICK HERE


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The Bone Broth Fad

 

Broth from meat and vegetables

Broth from meat and vegetables (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

About a month ago, there was an extensive article in our local Asheville, NC paper about bone broth. According to the article, it was described as a “health tonic” or a “health-giving elixir”.  It is rich in collagen and amino acids needed to “strengthen tendons, joints, and ligaments.”  And best of all, it only takes 72 hours to make. This article gives a fair assessment of bone broth, its strengths (if any) and its limitations.   It probably would do no harm if you want to go to the trouble of making it – but don’t believe the hype.

CLICK HERE.


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The Wizardry of Dr. Oz’s Own Words – General Healthy – Khanna On Health Blog

Check out these  two articles.  This is where some nutrition and diet misinformation comes from and  there is enough of that to go around for everyone.

The Wizardry of Dr. Oz’s Own Words – General Healthy – Khanna On Health Blog.

 


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Celiac Disease or Gluten Sensitivity?

Gluten-free beer

Gluten-free beer (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

 

May is Celiac Awareness Month!   Gluten-free is the latest fad diet for those who think they have symptoms resembling celiac disease.   Celiac disease is a serious disease that must be diagnosed by a physician.  Gluten sensitivity is less serve but can cause IBS -like digestive problems, headaches, and other more vague symptoms.  Please do not self-diagnose or avoid gluten until you have a confirmed diagnosis.

 

CLICK HERE:

 

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Vegetarians vs. Meat Eaters – Who is Healtheir?

vegan food pyramid adapted from recommendation...

vegan food pyramid adapted from recommendations made in “A new food guide for North American vegetarians” (2003) from the American Dietetic Association (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 

 

This new study from Austria has been presented on the news with headlines stating, “Vegetarians are less healthy than meat-eaters”. This title alone goes against the many studies that say the opposite such as those from data from the Seventh Day Adventists’ populations. This study is very controversial and the study design has been highly criticized. There appears to be a multitude of limitations.

The term vegetarian has a fairly loose definition. What exactly does it mean? Within this group we have vegans, fruitarians, lactovegetarians, lactoovovegetarians and even at times includes people who say they are vegetarians who are classified as “almost vegetarians” who allow some dairy and fish intake into their diets. Other people simply say they are vegetarians because they exclude red meat in their diet. We call these people “sometimes vegetarians”.

True vegans have some problems with their diets that requires some creative planning to provide high-quality protein using legumes and whole grains. These proteins must provide all amino acids needed for protein synthesis. The essential amino acid deficient from one food protein are supplied by those of another protein in the same meal or in the next. For example, many legumes do not provide enough methionine, and cereals are limited in lysine. When combined, the body is supplied with adequate amounts of both amino acids, so cereals and legumes complement each other.

The true vegan diet an also pose a risk for adequate iron, vitamin D, and vitamin B12. So inclusion of some fortified foods, such as whole-grain, ready-to-eat breakfast cereal or a balanced vitamin and mineral supplement is advised

CLICK HERE:

Here are limitations of the study by the authors

“Potential limitations of our results are due to the fact that the survey was based on cross-sectional data. Therefore, no statements can be made whether the poorer health in vegetarians in our study is caused by their dietary habit or if they consume this form of diet due to their poorer health status. We cannot state whether a causal relationship exists, but describe ascertained associations. Moreover, we cannot give any information regarding the long-term consequences of consuming a special diet nor concerning mortality rates. Thus, further longitudinal studies will be required to substantiate our results. Further limitations include the measurement of dietary habits as a self-reported variable and the fact that subjects were asked how they would describe their eating behavior, without giving them a clear definition of the various dietary habit groups. However, a significant association between the dietary habit of individuals and their weight and drinking behavior is indicative for the validity of the variable. Another limitation concerns the lack of detailed information regarding nutritional components (e.g. the amount of carbohydrates, cholesterol, or fatty acids consumed). Therefore, more in-depth studies about nutritional habits and their effects on health are required among Austrian adults. Further studies should e.g. investigate the influence of the various dietary habits on the incidence of different cancer types. To our knowledge this is the first study ever in Austria to analyze differences in terms of dietary habits and their impact on health. We admit that the large number of participants made it necessary to keep the questions simple, in order to cover the large sample. Overall, we feel that our results are of specific interest and contribute to extant scientific knowledge, notwithstanding some limitations regarding causes and effects.”

 

 

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Disordered Eating – A Case Study

Two images of an anorexic female patient publi...

Two images of an anorexic female patient published in 1900 in “Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière”, (a french medical journal) vol 13. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Eating disorders are not going away.  In fact, up to 24 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder (anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder) in the U.S.

The causes are complex, but how much influence does the media contribute especially with the younger population?

  • 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 25.
  • Over one-half of teenage girls and nearly one-third of teenage boys use unhealthy weight control behaviors such as skipping meal, fasting, smoking, vomiting and taking laxatives.
  • The body type portrayed in advertising is possessed naturally by only 5% of American females.
  • 47% of girls in the 5th-12th grade reported wanting to lose weight because of magazine pictures.
  • 42% of 1st-3rd grade girls want to be thinner.
  • 81% of 10-year olds are afraid of being fat.

One thing I found appalling a few years ago is that are websites on the Internet that actually help to promote eating disorders.  Some promote a concept of “thinspiration” by using photos of gaunt celebrities for motivation to others on the “appeal” on losing weight.  They offer tips on how to hide the disease from parents and  family as well as how to lose weight.

A study published in June, 2010 in the American Journal of Public Health analyzed 180 of these sites.  The researchers found that most of the sites used sophisticated interactive features more frequently than earlier sites.  Often  people with eating disorders feel very isolated and have a low sense of self-esteem; therefore these sites play on these feelings by giving them a sense of community – i.e. having interaction  and support from others with the same disorders.  Now people are using social media such as Twitter to promote disease, the authors concluded.

The following article with accompanying video shows us the dangers out there that may be promoting eating disorders in more subtle ways.

CLICK HERE.

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